October 1, 2016

Physics: Bernoulli's Principle

  • Pressure is the force per unit area on a surface.
  • Fluid pressure results from the motion of the atoms or molecules that make up the fluid.
  • Pressure at a given level in a fluid is the same in all directions. Pressure decreases with altitude and increases with depth.
Transmitting Pressure in a Fluid
  • According to Pascal's principle, an increase in pressure on a confined fluid is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid.
  • A hydraulic device works by transmitting an increase in pressure from one part of a confined fluid to the other. A small force exerted over a small area at one place results in a large force exerted by a larger area at another place.

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Floating and Sinking
  • The upward force on a object submerged in a fluid is called the buoyant force.
  • The buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. This is Archimedes' principle.
  • An object will sink, rise to the surface, or stay where it is a fluid depending on whether its density is less then, greater than, or equal to the density of the fluid.
Applying Bernoulli's Principle
  • The pressure in a fluid decreases as the speed of the fluid increases. This is Bernoulli's principle.

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