April 24, 2017

Zasady dynamiki Newtona I i II


Jeżeli na ciało nie działają żadne siły lub działające siły się równoważą, to ciało pozostaje w spoczynku lub porusza się ruchem jednostajnym prostoliniowym.

Masa jest miarą bezwładności ciała.


Jeżeli na ciało działa niezrównoważona siła, porusza się ono ruchem zmiennym z przyspieszeniem wprost proporcjonalnym do działającej siły. Przyspieszenie ciała, na które działa stała niezrównoważona siła, jest tym mniejsze, im większa jest jego masa:
a = F/m

F - wartość siły
m - masa ciała
a - przyspieszenie ciała

1 N jest to siła, która ciału o masie 1 kg nadaje przyspieszenie 1 m/s².

Source: Physics4kids

Przyspieszenie ciała, na które działa niezrównoważona siła, jest wprost proporcjonalne do działającej siły.
Przy danej wartości siły działającej na ciało przyspieszenie jest tym mniejsze, im większa jest masa ciała.

Spadające swobodnie ciała poruszają się ruchem jednostajnie przyspieszonym. Przyspieszenie, z jakim w pobliżu Ziemi porusza się swobodnie ciało, nazywa się przyspieszeniem ziemskim.

g≈9,81 m/s²

Fg - siła ciężkości (grawitacji)
m - masa ciała
g - przyspieszenie ziemskie

Czas swobodnego spadania ciała nie zależy od jego masy. 

April 23, 2017

Satellites and Centripetal force

A satellite is any object that travels around another object in space.
An artificial satellite is a device launched into orbit around Earth. Artificial satellites are designed for many purposes. They are used in space research, communications, military intelligence, weather analysis, and geographical surveys.

Source: Wikipedia

Any force that causes an object to move in a circle is called a centripetal force ("center seeking").

An object traveling in a circle is accelerating because it is constantly changing direction. For a satellite the centripetal force is the gravitational force that pulls the satellite toward the center of the Earth.

Source: Science for Kids 

Satellites in orbit around Earth continually fall toward Earth, but because Earth is curved they travel around it. In other words, a satellite is a projectile that falls around Earth rather than into it. A satellite does not need fuel because it continues to move ahead thanks to its inertia. At the same time, gravity continuously changes the satellite's direction.
The speed with which an object must be thrown in order to orbit Earth turns out to be about 7,900m/s!

April 5, 2017

Newton's Third Law of Motion

If one object exerts a force on another object, then the second object exerts a force of equal strength in the opposite direction on the first object.

MOMENTUM = Mass × Velocity

The unit for momentum is kilogram-meters per second (kg⁤∗ms/s). Like velocity and acceleration, momentum is described by its direction as well as its quantity.

Law of Conservation of Momentum
The total momentum of any group of objects remains the same unless outside forces act on the object.

Source: successify.net

April 3, 2017

Washington Irving

Source: Wikipedia
BORN: April 3, 1783 (New York)
DIED: November 28, 1859 (New York)
OCCUPATION: Writer, Diplomat

  • Letters of Jonathan Oldstyle (1802)
  • Salmagundi (1807–1808)
  • A History of New York (1809)
  • The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. (1819–1820)
  • Bracebridge Hall (1822)
  • Tales of a Traveller (1824)
  • A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus (1828)
  • Chronicle of the Conquest of Granada (1829)
  • Voyages and Discoveries of the Companions of Columbus (1831)
  • Tales of the Alhambra (1832)
  • The Crayon Miscellany (1835)
  • Astoria (1836)
  • The Adventures of Captain Bonneville (1837)
  • The Life of Oliver Goldsmith (1840) (revised 1849)
  • Biography and Poetical Remains of the Late Margaret Miller Davidson (1841)
  • Mahomet and His Successors (1849)
  • Wolfert's Roost (1855)
  • The Life of George Washington (5 volumes) (1855–1859)

February 6, 2017

Biology: Advances in genetics

Methods that people have used to develop new organisms with desirable traits are:
  • Selective breeding
                selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation.
  • Inbreeding
                crossing two individuals that have identical or similar sets of alleles. The new organisms are very similar to those of their parents.
  • Hybridization
                crossing two genetically different individuals. The hybrid organism that results is bred  to have the best traits from both parents.
  • Cloning
               a clone is an organism that is genetically identical to the original organism it was produced from. A clone  has exactly the the same genes as the parent organism.
  • Genetic Engineering
               in this  process genes from one organism are transferred into the DNA of another organism.
Dolly, the first cloned sheep.
Source: Daily Mail

The Human Genome Project:
A genome is all the DNA in one cell of an organism.
The main goal of the Human Genome Project is to identify the DNA sequence of every gene in the human genome.

January 19, 2017

Airbus Families



Range: 15,200km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 280
Max Payload: 12.95t
Wing Span: 64.75m
Overall length: 60.54m
Height: 17.05m
Engine: 2x RR Trent XWB
Max fuel capacity: 138,000L

Range: 15,000km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 325
Max Payload: 16t
Wing Span: 64.75m
Overall length: 66.8m
Height: 17.05m
Engine: 2x RR Trent XWB
Max fuel capacity: 138,000L

Range: 14,800km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 366
Max Payload: 20.89t
Wing Span: 64.75m
Overall length: 73.78m
Height: 17.08m
Engine: 2x RR Trent XWB
Max fuel capacity: 156,000L


Range: 15,200km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 544
Max Payload: - t
Wing Span: 79.75m
Overall length: 72.72m
Height: 24.09m
Engine: 4x GP 7200, or RR Trent 900
Max fuel capacity: 320,000L


Range: 5,750km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 107
Max Payload: 11.1t
Wing Span: 34.10m
Overall length: 31.44m
Height: 12.56m
Engine: 2x PW6000A, or CFM56-5B
Max fuel capacity: 24,210L

Range: 6,950km (with Sharklets)
Passengers (Typical Seating): 124
Max Payload: 13.2t
Wing Span: 35.80m
Overall length: 33.84m
Height: 11.76m
Engine: 2x CFM56-5B, or V2500-A5
Max fuel capacity: 30,190L

Range: 6,100km (with Sharklets)
Passengers (Typical Seating): 150
Max Payload: 16.6t
Wing Span: 35.80m
Overall length: 37.57m
Height: 11.76m
Engine: 2x V2500-A5, or CFM56-5B
Max fuel capacity: 27,200L

Range: 5,950km (with Sharklets)
Passengers (Typical Seating): 185
Max Payload: 21.2t
Wing Span: 35.80m
Overall length: 44.51m
Height: 11.76m
Engine: 2x V2500-A5, or CFM56-5B
Max fuel capacity: 30,030L


Range: 13,450km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 247
Max Payload: 36,4t
Wing Span: 60.30m-]
Overall length: 58.82m
Height: 17.39m
Engine: 2x PW4000, GE CF6-80E1, or RR Trent 700-]
Max fuel capacity: 139,090L

Range: 11,750km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 277
Max Payload: 45.9t
Wing Span: 60.30m
Overall length: 63.69m
Height: 16.83m
Engine: 2x PW4000, GE CF6-80E1, or RR Trent 700
Max fuel capacity: 97,530L


Range: 12,400km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 261
Max Payload: 30.8t
Wing Span: 60.30m
Overall length: 59.4m
Height: 16.80m
Engine: 4x CFM56-5C4/P
Max fuel capacity: 155,040L

Range: 13,500km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 277
Max Payload: 43.5t
Wing Span: 60.30m
Overall length: 63.69m
Height: 16.91m
Engine: 4x CFM56-5C4/P
Max fuel capacity: 140,640L

Range: 16,670km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 293
Max Payload: 43.3t
Wing Span:63.45m
Overall length: 67.93m
Height: 17.28m
Engine: 4x RR Trent 500
Max fuel capacity: 215,260L

Range: 14,450km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 326
Max Payload: 55.6t
Wing Span:63.45m
Overall length: 75.36m
Height: 17.22m
Engine: 4x RR Trent 500
Max fuel capacity: 195,520L

With all the information above i made this small project:

All information and images above are from Airbus.com

January 17, 2017

Biology: Walter Sutton and inheritance

Walter Sutton

Walter Sutton - (1877-1916) was an American geneticist who studied the cells of grasshoppers. He was trying to figure out how sex cells form. During his studies, he examined  sex cells many different stages of formation. He was interested in the movement of chromosomes during the formation of sex cells. He said that chromosomes were the key to understanding how offspring come to have traits similar to those of their parents.
Chromosomes carry Mendel's hereditary factors, from one generation to the next. In other words, genes are located on chromosomes.

Chromosome Theory of Inheritance 
Genes are carried from parents to their offspring on chromosomes.

Meiosis is the process by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to form sex cells-sperm and eggs.
During meiosis, the chromosome pairs separate and are distributed to two different cells. The resulting sex cells have only half as many chromosomes as the other cells in the organism.

Chromosomes are made up of many genes joined together like beads on a string.
Although humans have only 23 pairs chromosomes, your body cells contain more than 60,000 genes. Each of the genes controls a particular trait.