February 6, 2017

Biology: Advances in genetics

Methods that people have used to develop new organisms with desirable traits are:
  • Selective breeding
                selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation.
  • Inbreeding
                crossing two individuals that have identical or similar sets of alleles. The new organisms are very similar to those of their parents.
  • Hybridization
                crossing two genetically different individuals. The hybrid organism that results is bred  to have the best traits from both parents.
  • Cloning
               a clone is an organism that is genetically identical to the original organism it was produced from. A clone  has exactly the the same genes as the parent organism.
  • Genetic Engineering
               in this  process genes from one organism are transferred into the DNA of another organism.
Dolly, the first cloned sheep.
Source: Daily Mail

The Human Genome Project:
A genome is all the DNA in one cell of an organism.
The main goal of the Human Genome Project is to identify the DNA sequence of every gene in the human genome.

January 19, 2017

Airbus Families



Range: 15,200km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 280
Max Payload: 12.95t
Wing Span: 64.75m
Overall length: 60.54m
Height: 17.05m
Engine: 2x RR Trent XWB
Max fuel capacity: 138,000L

Range: 15,000km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 325
Max Payload: 16t
Wing Span: 64.75m
Overall length: 66.8m
Height: 17.05m
Engine: 2x RR Trent XWB
Max fuel capacity: 138,000L

Range: 14,800km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 366
Max Payload: 20.89t
Wing Span: 64.75m
Overall length: 73.78m
Height: 17.08m
Engine: 2x RR Trent XWB
Max fuel capacity: 156,000L


Range: 15,200km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 544
Max Payload: - t
Wing Span: 79.75m
Overall length: 72.72m
Height: 24.09m
Engine: 4x GP 7200, or RR Trent 900
Max fuel capacity: 320,000L


Range: 5,750km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 107
Max Payload: 11.1t
Wing Span: 34.10m
Overall length: 31.44m
Height: 12.56m
Engine: 2x PW6000A, or CFM56-5B
Max fuel capacity: 24,210L

Range: 6,950km (with Sharklets)
Passengers (Typical Seating): 124
Max Payload: 13.2t
Wing Span: 35.80m
Overall length: 33.84m
Height: 11.76m
Engine: 2x CFM56-5B, or V2500-A5
Max fuel capacity: 30,190L

Range: 6,100km (with Sharklets)
Passengers (Typical Seating): 150
Max Payload: 16.6t
Wing Span: 35.80m
Overall length: 37.57m
Height: 11.76m
Engine: 2x V2500-A5, or CFM56-5B
Max fuel capacity: 27,200L

Range: 5,950km (with Sharklets)
Passengers (Typical Seating): 185
Max Payload: 21.2t
Wing Span: 35.80m
Overall length: 44.51m
Height: 11.76m
Engine: 2x V2500-A5, or CFM56-5B
Max fuel capacity: 30,030L


Range: 13,450km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 247
Max Payload: 36,4t
Wing Span: 60.30m-]
Overall length: 58.82m
Height: 17.39m
Engine: 2x PW4000, GE CF6-80E1, or RR Trent 700-]
Max fuel capacity: 139,090L

Range: 11,750km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 277
Max Payload: 45.9t
Wing Span: 60.30m
Overall length: 63.69m
Height: 16.83m
Engine: 2x PW4000, GE CF6-80E1, or RR Trent 700
Max fuel capacity: 97,530L


Range: 12,400km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 261
Max Payload: 30.8t
Wing Span: 60.30m
Overall length: 59.4m
Height: 16.80m
Engine: 4x CFM56-5C4/P
Max fuel capacity: 155,040L

Range: 13,500km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 277
Max Payload: 43.5t
Wing Span: 60.30m
Overall length: 63.69m
Height: 16.91m
Engine: 4x CFM56-5C4/P
Max fuel capacity: 140,640L

Range: 16,670km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 293
Max Payload: 43.3t
Wing Span:63.45m
Overall length: 67.93m
Height: 17.28m
Engine: 4x RR Trent 500
Max fuel capacity: 215,260L

Range: 14,450km
Passengers (Typical Seating): 326
Max Payload: 55.6t
Wing Span:63.45m
Overall length: 75.36m
Height: 17.22m
Engine: 4x RR Trent 500
Max fuel capacity: 195,520L

With all the information above i made this small project:

All information and images above are from Airbus.com

January 17, 2017

Biology: Walter Sutton and inheritance

Walter Sutton

Walter Sutton - (1877-1916) was an American geneticist who studied the cells of grasshoppers. He was trying to figure out how sex cells form. During his studies, he examined  sex cells many different stages of formation. He was interested in the movement of chromosomes during the formation of sex cells. He said that chromosomes were the key to understanding how offspring come to have traits similar to those of their parents.
Chromosomes carry Mendel's hereditary factors, from one generation to the next. In other words, genes are located on chromosomes.

Chromosome Theory of Inheritance 
Genes are carried from parents to their offspring on chromosomes.

Meiosis is the process by which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to form sex cells-sperm and eggs.
During meiosis, the chromosome pairs separate and are distributed to two different cells. The resulting sex cells have only half as many chromosomes as the other cells in the organism.

Chromosomes are made up of many genes joined together like beads on a string.
Although humans have only 23 pairs chromosomes, your body cells contain more than 60,000 genes. Each of the genes controls a particular trait.

January 15, 2017

Physics: Friction and Gravity

The strength of the force of friction depends on two factors: the types of surfaces involved and how hard the surfaces push together.

il_fullxfull.250203781There are different kinds of friction:
  • sliding friction - when one solid surface slides over another.
  • rolling friction - when a object rolls over a surface.
  • fluid friction - when an object moves through a fluid. 


Free fall - when the only force acting on a falling object is gravity.
Terminal velocity -  the maximum velocity a falling object achieves.

January 4, 2017

Newton's First and Second Law of Motion

Newton's First Law of Motion
Law of inertia

An object at rest will remain at rest and an object that is moving at constant velocity will continue moving at constant velocity unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.

Newton's Second Law of Motion

The net force on an object is the product of its acceleration and its mass.

F = ma

F - Force
m - mass
a - acceleration 

1N = 1kg  1m/s²

Image result for second law of motion

January 3, 2017

Biology: Gregor Mendel - intro to genetics

Trait: A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.

Gene: A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait.

Alleles: The different forms of gene.

Dominant alleles: An allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present.

Recessive alleles: An allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present.

Hybrid: An organism that has two different alleles for a trait (heterozygous organism).

Gregor Mendel oval.jpgGregor Mendel (1822-1884) - Austrian scientist, priest, teacher. He studied genetics with his pea plants in the monastery. And wrote a report why some peas are tall and some are short.  Back in his days no one believed his theory. Now he is considered the father of modern genetics.

December 15, 2016

Chemistry: Nonmetals

Physical Properties

The physical properties of nonmetals are opposite to those that characterize metals. 
  • Many of the nonmetals are gasses at room temperature
  • They have low boiling points
  • Carbon and Iodine are solids at room temperature
  • Bromine is the only liquid at room temperature 

Chemical Properties
  • The atoms of the nonmetals (except for the ones in group 18) can react with other atoms, leading to the formation of compounds.

Compounds of Nonmetals
  • Nonmetals can also form compounds with other nonmetals
  • The atoms share electrons and become bonded together into molecules, such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide
  • When the molecules contain only two atoms, they are called diatomic molecules (O₂, N₂, H₂)
  • Some nonmetal elements also form diatomic molecules