October 17, 2018

18th Century Taiwan

1714 - A Christian priest started surveying Taiwan island.
1721 -  Rebellion of Chu I-Kui (朱一貴).

Source: hero780403.blogspot.com
1723 - Qing Government established Chang-hua (彰化) County, Tamshui (淡水) and Penghu (澎湖) sub-prefectures.
1729 - Qing Government strictly forbade emigration to Taiwan.
1730 - Settlers without families in Taiwan were ordered to return to the Mainland.
1732 - Qing forces under the administration of the Yung-cheng Emperor (雍親王) suppressed Ta-chia-hsi (大甲西) indigenous rebellion.

Source: Wikipedia
1738 - Lung-shan Temple (龍山寺) was erected in Wanhua (萬華), Taipei.

Source: Wikipedia
1740 - Qing Government prohibited settlers from moving their families out of Mainland.
1748 - Hakkas moved into Miao-li (苗栗).
1760 - Bans on traveling totally relaxed.
1782 - Struggle between Ch'uan-chous (泉州人) and Chang-chous (漳州人) from Fu-chien (福建) broke out in Chang-hua (彰化) and caused disturbances.
1784 - The Port of Lu-kang (鹿港) opened.
1786-1788 - Lin Shuang-wen (林爽文) rebellion was suppressed after nine months of constant battling.
1795 - Ch'en Chou-ch'uan (陳周全) rose in revolt against Qing Dynasty.

September 4, 2018

Anatomy: Body Organization

The levels of organization in the human body consist of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. The smallest unit is the cell, and the largest is the organ system.

Source: ThoughtCo.
A cell is the basic unit of structure and function in a living thing.
The human body contains about 100 trillion cells.

The cell membrane forms the outside boundary of the cell.
Inside the cell membrane is a large structure called the nucleus. The nucleus is the control center that directs the cell's activities and contains information that determines the cell's characteristics. When the cell divides or reproduces, this information is passed on to the newly formed cells.
The area between the cell membrane and the nucleus is called the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm contains a clear, jellylike substance in which many important cell structures, called organelles, are found.

Source: BC Open Textbooks
A tissue is a group of similar cells that perform the same function.

The human body contains four basic types of tissue: muscle tissue, nerve tissue, connective tissue, and epithelial tissue.

Like the muscle cells that form it, muscle tissue can contract, or shorten. By doing this, muscle tissue makes parts of your body move.

Nerve tissue carries messages back and forth between the brain and every other part of the body. Your brain is made up mostly of nerve tissue.

Connective tissue provides support of your body and connects all its parts. Bone is one kind of connective tissue; its strength and hardness support your body and protect its internal structures. Fat is also a connective tissue. It pads parts of your body, provides insulation from cold, and stores energy.

Epithelial tissue covers the surfaces of your body, inside and out. Some epithelial tissue, such as the outermost layer of your skin, protects the delicate structures that lie beneath it. Other kinds of epithelial tissue absorb or release substances. The lining of your digestive system consists of epithelial tissue that releases chemicals used in digestion.

Organs and Organ Systems
Source: healtharchives.info
An organ is a structure that is composed of different kinds of tissue.

The heart contains all four kinds of tissue - muscle, nerve, connective, and epithelial. Each tissue type contributes to the overall job of pumping blood.

Each organ in your body is part of an organ system, a group of organs that work together to perform a major function. Your heart is part of your circulatory system, which carries oxygen and other materials throughout the body. Besides the heart, blood vessels are organs in the circulatory system.


The systems of the body work together to maintain homeostasis, the body's tendency to keep an internal balance. Homeostasis is the process by which an organism's internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in the external environment.


Stress is a reaction of your body and mind to threatening, challenging, or disturbing events.

  • More blood goes to the brain.
  • Hearing ability increases.
  • Sweating increases.
  • Muscles tense.
  • Blood receives more energy-producing substances.
  • Body cells release energy faster.
  • Pupils of eyes widen to take in more light.
  • Heart rate increases.
  • Digestive system slows.

June 8, 2018

Fizyka: Ciepło właściwe

Source: Fizykon.org

Przyrost temperatury wody jest wprost proporcjonalny do ilości pobranego przez nią ciepła.

T ~ Q

Ilość pobranego przez wodę ciepłą potrzebnego do uzyskania danego przyrostu temperatury jest wprost proporcjonalna do masy wody.

Ew = Q
Q ~ m

Ilość pobranego przez ciało ciepła potrzebna do zwiększenia temperatury o tę samą wartość zależy od rodzaju substancji, z której zbudowane jest ciało.

Ciepło właściwe określa, ile energii trzeba dostarczyć, aby zwiększyć temperaturę 1kg danej substancji o 1K (o 1C). Ciepło właściwe oblicza się jako iloraz ciepła dostarczonego ciału i iloczynu jego masy i przyrostu temperatury.

c = Q / m×T

Ilość ciepła, jaką podbiera ciało podczas ogrzewania, można obliczyć ze wzoru Q = c×m×△T.

Ilość ciepła Q pobranego przez ciało jest wprost proporcjonalna do masy ciała m i przyrostu temperatury △T:

Q = c×m×T

gdzie c jest współczynnikiem proporcjonalności, zwanym ciepłem właściwym, charakterystycznym dla danego ciała.

Ciepło właściwe - jest to cecha substancji określająca, ile ciepła dana substancja musi pobrać, aby 1kg jej masy został ogrzany o 1K (1℃). Ciepło właściwe oblicza się jako iloraz ciepła dostarczonego ciału i iloczynu jego masy i przyrostu temperatury.

June 7, 2018

Biology: Different kinds of Mammals

Source: Mammal's Locomotion

Source: World Atlas
Monotremes are mammals that lay eggs.

Source: San Diego Zoo
Marsupials are mammals whose young are born alive, but at an early stage of development, and they usually continue to develop in a pouch on their mother's body.

Placental Mammals 
Source: World Wild Life
A placental mammal develops inside its mother's body until its body systems can function independently.

June 6, 2018

Chemia: Kwas Węglowy

Source: Chemia - Gimnazjum
CO + H₂O ⟶ H₂O₃

Właściwości fizyczne
  • ciecz
  • bezbarwny
Właściwości chemiczne
  • nieorganiczny kwas tlenowy
  • bezwonny
  • nietrwały - łatwo ulega rozkładowi

Zastosowania kwasu węglowego

Przemysł spożywczy
Woda gazowana jest to wodny roztwór kwasu węglowego.

Synteza węglanów
Związki chemiczne zawierające resztę kwasową kwasu węglowego to węglany.

W uzdrowiskach kwas węglowy jest wykorzystywany do tzw. kąpieli kwasowęglowych leczących choroby skórne.

Laboratoria chemiczne
CO + H₂O stosuje się w reakcjach chemicznych.

June 5, 2018

Chemia: Kwas Azotowy (V)

Source: Chemia - Gimnazjum

NO₅ + H₂O ⟶ 2 HNO₃

Reakcja ksantoproteinowa - reakcja charakterystyczna białek ze stężonym roztworem kwasu azotowego (V).

Właściwości fizyczne
  • ciecz
  • bezbarwny
  • ma gęstość około 1.5 raza większą od gęstości wody
Właściwości chemiczne
  • nieorganiczny kwas tlenowy
  • ma charakterystyczny ostry zapach
  • żrący
  • powoduje żółknięcie białek w reakcji ksantoproteinowej
  • na silne właściwości utleniające
Zastosowania kwasu azotowego (V)

Przemysł farmaceutyczny
W chorobach układu krążenia i serca jest stosowana nitrogliceryna - lek produkowany z wykorzystaniem HNO₃.

Paliwa rakietowe
Kwas azotowy (V) jest składnikiem paliw rakietowych.

Produkcja perfum
Substancje zapachowe będące składnikami wielu perfum to wytworzone w laboratoriach chemicznych syntetyczne ambra i piżmo. Do ich produkcji wykorzystuje się HNO₃.

Kwas azotowy (V) stosuje się do produkcji nawozów sztucznych.

Produkcja lakierów i farb do drewna

June 4, 2018

Biology: Mammals

Source: National Geographic
All mammals are endothermic vertebrates with a four-chambered heart, and skin covered with fur or hair. The young of most mammals are born alive, and every young mammal is fed with milk produced in its mother's body. In addition, mammals have teeth of different shapes that are adapted to their diets.

Fur and Hair
Source: Animals Australia 
All mammals have fur or hair at some point in their lives.
Fur and hair help mammals maintain a stable body temperature in cold weather.

Mammals are endotherms, which means that their bodies produce enough heat to maintain a stable body temperature regardless of the temperature of their environment.

Source: National Geographic
Endotherms need a lot of energy to maintain their body temperature, and that energy comes from food. Mammals' teeth are adapted to chew their food, breaking it into small bits that make digestion easier.

Most mammals have teeth with four different shapes. Incisors are flat-edged teeth used to bite off and cut parts of food. Canines are sharply pointed teeth that stab food and tear into it. Premolars and molars grind and shred food into tiny bits.

Getting Oxygen to Cells

All mammals breathe with lungs.

Mammals breathe in and out because of the combined action of rib muscles and large muscle called the diaphragm located at the bottom of the chest.

Mammals have a four-chambered heart and a two loop circulation. One loop pumps oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs and then back to the heart. The second loop pumps oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the tissues of the mammal's body, and then back to the heart.

Nervous System and Senses

The nervous system and senses of an animal receive information about its environment and coordinate the animal's movements. The brains of mammals enable them to learn, remember, and behave in complex ways.

The senses of mammals are highly developed and adapted for the ways that individual species live.

Most mammals have good hearing.

Most mammals have highly developed senses of smell.

Source: Animal Ark
One function of a mammal's nervous system is to direct and coordinate complex movement.

Reproducing and Caring for Young

Mammals have internal fertilization. Although a few kinds of mammals lay shelled eggs, the young of most mammals develop within their mothers' bodies and are never enclosed in an eggshell. All mammals, even those that lay eggs, feed their young with  milk produced in mammary glands.

Young mammals are usually quite helpless for a long time after being born.

Stay with their mother or both parents for an extended time.