June 20, 2019

Taiwanese Artists

Huang Tu-shui (黃土水) - Ko Dosui {1895-1930}
Taiwan's first modern sculptor.
During his life he was selected for The Imperial Art Academy Exhibition four times.
Many of his works have disappeared due to unfavorable political circumstances in postwar Taiwan.

Source: www.lianggallery.com
Chiang Wen-yeh (江文也) - Koh Bunya {1910-1983}
He was an impressive singer, composer, poet, and writer.
Without any formal musical training, he entered the vocal music field through competitions at age 22.
In the Art Competition at the Berlin Summer Olympics (1936), he won an Honorable Mention in the category of Orchestra with "Formosan Dance."

Lin Chao-ying (林朝英) {1739-1816}
His calligraphy is known as the "bamboo-leaf style," due to its distinct and vigorous structure.
His floral paintings are also vibrant and lively.
He created his works as a member of the literati.

Source: nicecasio.pixnet.net
Lin Chueh (林覺) {1796-1850}
He was a professional painter.
His lively and amusing depictions of figures, flora, and birds were painted in an intuitive style.
He appears to have been deeply influenced by Huang Shen, one of the eight eccentrics of Yangchou.

Source: Wikipedia
Ishikawa Kinichiro {1871-1945}
He was a watercolorist and interpreter for the army.
He visited Taiwan twice, making a significant artistic impact on both occasions.
He introduced Western art to the Taiwanese public through exhibitions, art clubs, and newspapers.
He taught art in the normal schools and fostered talented students.

Source: culture.teldap.tw
Chen Chin (陳進) {1907-1998}
She was selected for the first Taiwanese Art Exhibition in the East Asian painting category.
She was known as one of "The Three Youths of Taiten".

Source: vr.theatre.ntu.edu.tw
Kuo Hsueh-hu (郭雪湖) {1908-2012}
He was selected for the first Taiwanese Art Exhibition in the East Asian painting category.
He was known as one of "The Three Youths of Taiten".

Source: www.lianggallery.com
Lin Ying-kuei (林英貴) {1907-2004}
He was selected for the first Taiwanese Art Exhibition in the East Asian painting category.
He was known as one of "The Three Youths of Taiten".

Source: www.pinterest.com
Lan Yin-ting (藍蔭鼎) {1903-1979}
He was a renowned watercolorist.
He was famous for painting rural scenes in Taiwan.
His teacher was Ishikawa Kinichiro.

Source: www.chinigallery.com
Chen Cheng-po (陳澄波) {1895-1947}

Source: chenchengpo.dcam.wzu.edu.tw
Chen Hui-kun (陳慧坤) {1907-2011}

Source: www.artsy.net
Li Shih-chiao (李石樵) {1908-1995}

Source: vr.theatre.ntu.edu.tw
Tateishi Tetsuomi {1905-1980}

Source: www.pinterest.com

April 17, 2019

19th Century Taiwan

1805 - Pirate Chu Feng (朱濆) attacks Tamshui landed and invaded as far as Su-ao (蘇澳) by 1807.
1806 - Conflict between the Ch'uan-chous and the Chang-chous continues several months.
1809 - Pirate Chu Feng is surrounded by the Qing navy and commits suicide.
1817 - Tamshui Government sets up a Confucian school in Hsin-chu.
1823 - Revolt by Lin Yung-ch'un (林永春).
1838 - The British enter Tamshui to trade.
1841 - English vessel comes to Keelung Harbor. More than 400 people on board are killed or taken hostage.
1853 - The Ch'uan-chous were hostile. The Chang-chous opened Ta-tao-ch'eng (大稻埕) in Taipei.

Source: blog.accupass.com
1854 - Part of Commodore Perry's fleet landed to survey coal.
1858 - Treaty of Tianjin was signed; Taiwan was forced to open its ports.
1860 - Convention of Peking was signed; ports of Tamshui and An-p'ing were opened
1862 - Tai Ch'ao-ch'un rose in revolt against the Qing.
1867 - The Rover (an American vessel) Incident broke out.
1868 - A British attempted to settle in the eastern area. British vessels attack An-p'ing.
1871 - Mu-tan Incident: 54 shipwrecked Ryukyuan sailors killed by Paiwan indigenes.
Qing government rejected the compensation demand from Japanese Government. The Qing commented: "This place is not under jurisdiction of the Qing Dynasty."

Source: Wikipedia
1874 - Japan sent punitive expedition of 6000 soldiers to Taiwan in retribution for Mu-tan Incident.
1875 - Taiwan was divided into two prefectures, north and south. Bans lifted, emigration from the mainland to Taiwan encouraged. Development of eastern Taiwan promoted.
1876 - The British began mining coal in Pa-tu-tzu.
1884 - Keelung and Tamshui harbors were blockaded by the French Navy during the Sino-French War. The French occupied Penghu.
1885 - The Sino-French War ended; the French troops retreated.
Taiwan Province was separated from Fu-chien Province. Liu Ming-ch'uan (劉銘傳) was appointed the first governor.
1886 - Bureaus for tax, telegraph, tea and mine were set up.
1887 - The government began building railways.
1888 - Postal system was established.
1891 - Liu Ming-ch'uan resigned; his successor reorganized the system.
1894 - Sino-Japanese war broke out.
          April 17 - Qing China signed the Treaty of Shimonoseki ceding Taiwan and the Pescadores Islands to Japan after being defeated by the Japanese Navy.

Source: Wikipedia
          May 25 - Pro-Qing officials declared the Republic of Formosa in an attempt to resist the arrival of the Japanese. T'ang Ching-sung (唐景崧) was named president.
          May 29 - Japanese forces landed in Taiwan.
          June 4 - T'ang Ching-sung fled to China.
          June 17 - Office of Governor-General of Taiwan opened; first phase of anti-Japanese movement terminated.

1896 - January 1 - Shizangan (芝山巖) Incident: six Japanese academic officials died on duty.

1897 - May 8 - Last day of two-year "grace period" under the Treaty of Shimonoseki (totally 6397 people chose to move to mainland).

1898 - Fourth Governor-General to Taiwan Kodama Gentaro (兒玉源太郎) arrived. He appointed Gotoh Shinpei a Civil Governor.

Source: Wikipedia 
1899 - The Bank of Taiwan established to encourage Japanese investment in Taiwan. Taiwan yen was issued by the Bank of Taiwan with an exchange ratio on par with the Japanese yen.
The Taipei Medical School was established.
Taipei tap water and sewerage systems completed.
Railway construction started to directly link Keelung (基隆) to Kaohsiung (高雄).

October 17, 2018

18th Century Taiwan

1714 - A Christian priest started surveying Taiwan island.
1721 -  Rebellion of Chu I-Kui (朱一貴).

Source: hero780403.blogspot.com
1723 - Qing Government established Chang-hua (彰化) County, Tamshui (淡水) and Penghu (澎湖) sub-prefectures.
1729 - Qing Government strictly forbade emigration to Taiwan.
1730 - Settlers without families in Taiwan were ordered to return to the Mainland.
1732 - Qing forces under the administration of the Yung-cheng Emperor (雍親王) suppressed Ta-chia-hsi (大甲西) indigenous rebellion.

Source: Wikipedia
1738 - Lung-shan Temple (龍山寺) was erected in Wanhua (萬華), Taipei.

Source: Wikipedia
1740 - Qing Government prohibited settlers from moving their families out of Mainland.
1748 - Hakkas moved into Miao-li (苗栗).
1760 - Bans on traveling totally relaxed.
1782 - Struggle between Ch'uan-chous (泉州人) and Chang-chous (漳州人) from Fu-chien (福建) broke out in Chang-hua (彰化) and caused disturbances.
1784 - The Port of Lu-kang (鹿港) opened.
1786-1788 - Lin Shuang-wen (林爽文) rebellion was suppressed after nine months of constant battling.
1795 - Ch'en Chou-ch'uan (陳周全) rose in revolt against Qing Dynasty.

September 4, 2018

Anatomy: Body Organization

The levels of organization in the human body consist of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. The smallest unit is the cell, and the largest is the organ system.

Source: ThoughtCo.
A cell is the basic unit of structure and function in a living thing.
The human body contains about 100 trillion cells.

The cell membrane forms the outside boundary of the cell.
Inside the cell membrane is a large structure called the nucleus. The nucleus is the control center that directs the cell's activities and contains information that determines the cell's characteristics. When the cell divides or reproduces, this information is passed on to the newly formed cells.
The area between the cell membrane and the nucleus is called the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm contains a clear, jellylike substance in which many important cell structures, called organelles, are found.

Source: BC Open Textbooks
A tissue is a group of similar cells that perform the same function.

The human body contains four basic types of tissue: muscle tissue, nerve tissue, connective tissue, and epithelial tissue.

Like the muscle cells that form it, muscle tissue can contract, or shorten. By doing this, muscle tissue makes parts of your body move.

Nerve tissue carries messages back and forth between the brain and every other part of the body. Your brain is made up mostly of nerve tissue.

Connective tissue provides support of your body and connects all its parts. Bone is one kind of connective tissue; its strength and hardness support your body and protect its internal structures. Fat is also a connective tissue. It pads parts of your body, provides insulation from cold, and stores energy.

Epithelial tissue covers the surfaces of your body, inside and out. Some epithelial tissue, such as the outermost layer of your skin, protects the delicate structures that lie beneath it. Other kinds of epithelial tissue absorb or release substances. The lining of your digestive system consists of epithelial tissue that releases chemicals used in digestion.

Organs and Organ Systems
Source: healtharchives.info
An organ is a structure that is composed of different kinds of tissue.

The heart contains all four kinds of tissue - muscle, nerve, connective, and epithelial. Each tissue type contributes to the overall job of pumping blood.

Each organ in your body is part of an organ system, a group of organs that work together to perform a major function. Your heart is part of your circulatory system, which carries oxygen and other materials throughout the body. Besides the heart, blood vessels are organs in the circulatory system.


The systems of the body work together to maintain homeostasis, the body's tendency to keep an internal balance. Homeostasis is the process by which an organism's internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in the external environment.


Stress is a reaction of your body and mind to threatening, challenging, or disturbing events.

  • More blood goes to the brain.
  • Hearing ability increases.
  • Sweating increases.
  • Muscles tense.
  • Blood receives more energy-producing substances.
  • Body cells release energy faster.
  • Pupils of eyes widen to take in more light.
  • Heart rate increases.
  • Digestive system slows.

June 8, 2018

Fizyka: Ciepło właściwe

Source: Fizykon.org

Przyrost temperatury wody jest wprost proporcjonalny do ilości pobranego przez nią ciepła.

T ~ Q

Ilość pobranego przez wodę ciepłą potrzebnego do uzyskania danego przyrostu temperatury jest wprost proporcjonalna do masy wody.

Ew = Q
Q ~ m

Ilość pobranego przez ciało ciepła potrzebna do zwiększenia temperatury o tę samą wartość zależy od rodzaju substancji, z której zbudowane jest ciało.

Ciepło właściwe określa, ile energii trzeba dostarczyć, aby zwiększyć temperaturę 1kg danej substancji o 1K (o 1C). Ciepło właściwe oblicza się jako iloraz ciepła dostarczonego ciału i iloczynu jego masy i przyrostu temperatury.

c = Q / m×T

Ilość ciepła, jaką podbiera ciało podczas ogrzewania, można obliczyć ze wzoru Q = c×m×△T.

Ilość ciepła Q pobranego przez ciało jest wprost proporcjonalna do masy ciała m i przyrostu temperatury △T:

Q = c×m×T

gdzie c jest współczynnikiem proporcjonalności, zwanym ciepłem właściwym, charakterystycznym dla danego ciała.

Ciepło właściwe - jest to cecha substancji określająca, ile ciepła dana substancja musi pobrać, aby 1kg jej masy został ogrzany o 1K (1℃). Ciepło właściwe oblicza się jako iloraz ciepła dostarczonego ciału i iloczynu jego masy i przyrostu temperatury.

June 7, 2018

Biology: Different kinds of Mammals

Source: Mammal's Locomotion

Source: World Atlas
Monotremes are mammals that lay eggs.

Source: San Diego Zoo
Marsupials are mammals whose young are born alive, but at an early stage of development, and they usually continue to develop in a pouch on their mother's body.

Placental Mammals 
Source: World Wild Life
A placental mammal develops inside its mother's body until its body systems can function independently.

June 6, 2018

Chemia: Kwas Węglowy

Source: Chemia - Gimnazjum
CO + H₂O ⟶ H₂O₃

Właściwości fizyczne
  • ciecz
  • bezbarwny
Właściwości chemiczne
  • nieorganiczny kwas tlenowy
  • bezwonny
  • nietrwały - łatwo ulega rozkładowi

Zastosowania kwasu węglowego

Przemysł spożywczy
Woda gazowana jest to wodny roztwór kwasu węglowego.

Synteza węglanów
Związki chemiczne zawierające resztę kwasową kwasu węglowego to węglany.

W uzdrowiskach kwas węglowy jest wykorzystywany do tzw. kąpieli kwasowęglowych leczących choroby skórne.

Laboratoria chemiczne
CO + H₂O stosuje się w reakcjach chemicznych.